Saturday, 5 December 2009

UK Tax Residence Latest Developments

The Court of Appeal Decision in Grace v HMRC is the latest twist in a high profile tax case on the law of Residence.

Lyle Grace, a British Airways Pilot who worked on long haul flights from Gatwick and Heathrow, owned a house here but also claimed to be a South African Resident.

He has won the right to a re-hearing of his case in the First Tier Tax Tribunal - formerly called the Special Commissioners.

The significance of Tax Residence at this time is critical in light of the many Entrepreneurs, Executives and High Net Worth Individuals considering leaving the UK because of the new 50% tax rate on incomes above £150,000.

This is the first case on Tax Residence to be considered by the Court of Appeal in over 40 years and is highly informative.

Two key issues were addressed by Lord Justice Lloyd:
  • Whether Lyle Grace had sufficiently broken his connections with the UK in 1997 (the year he claimed to have taken up Residence in South Africa) and established them in South Africa. This is a concept of establishing a "Distinct Break" and is a crucial one.
  • The other issue was whether, as HMRC contended his regular return to the UK to pilot long haul flights for British Airways were not for "some temporary purpose only"; but were for a regular and permanent purpose, sufficient to constitute Residence.
Those thinking of leaving the UK will note that retaining employment in the UK and entering the Country regularly, may well swing the scales towards Residence.

Good organisation and planning of any continuing employment or business ties with the UK are therefore essential elements. Anyone wanting to succeed in keeping out of the UK tax net needs to pay careful attention to how this is structured.

The other issue emerging from the case is what steps are necessary to
constitute the "Distinct Break" in the pattern of a taxpayer's life?

Clearly, retaining "available accommodation" is probably (of itself) fatal, whatever the case. HMRC see this as completely pivotal and treat this as a single and over-arching factor from which they will not back down.

Retaining an employment/directorship/management role in the UK and coming here to carry out the duties of that role, may also be fatal.

Lord Justice Lloyd has effectively sent those questions back to the First Tier Tribunal and specifically Dr Nuala Brice, so we don't know the exact outcome as yet.

The Pilots' cases emerged from a large scale HMRC Enquiry into British
Airways' payroll. In all, some several hundred Pilots' cases were taken under Enquiry.

Most were settled by payments to HMRC.

Lyle Grace probably should have considered this route since the costs
of three Court cases and now a fourth must probably come close to all
the outstanding tax and interest owed.

The other fascinating insight into Grace and indeed all the recent tax cases, is that although the Taxpayer claims to be Tax Resident in another country, he clearly was able to satisfy the Residence rules in that other Country, be it Cyprus or South Africa, or anywhere else.

One planning solution for those leaving the UK is not perhaps to head to Tax Havens such as Monaco, Bahamas or Gibraltar, but instead take up residence in countries with Double Taxation Treaties with the UK.

Obviously, if the Country in question has a tax rate equal to the UK's new Income Tax rate of 50% or higher, then there is no benefit!

However, it is surprising how many Countries, now have lower income
tax rates than the UK!

Also, many Countries have different tax treatments of income and capital gains e.g. Belgium and Switzerland that broadly have no Capital Gains taxation on "Private Capital".

In addition, there are special regimes that exempt foreign sourced
income and capital gains. Take Spain offering 24% flat rate on Spanish
income for six years and Portugal offering 20% on Portuguese income
for ten years.

It is essential to obtain detailed integrated expert tax advice. UK advice that addresses the "Distinct Break" and continuing connections, and Foreign advice that ensures that the Client clearly qualifies or understands what they have to do to qualify as Tax Resident, in their chosen Country.

The relevance of being Tax Resident in a Double Tax Treaty Country is
that the Treaty will usually contain an Article (usually Article 3).

So, if a taxpayer is Tax Resident under the general laws of BOTH
Countries; The Treaty will award taxing rights based on the tests laid
out in the Article, known as the "Tie-Breaker" Clause.

If Lyle Grace had been Tax Resident in South Africa, then Article 4 of
the UK/South Africa Treaty would have been used to determine his tax
status. Clearly, the number of days he spent in South Africa were not
sufficient to make him Tax Resident there, under South African tax


There is a clear way forward to avoid similar problems for Clients in the future. That is to take advice on the "Distinct Break" and to ensure that the Client has the protection of a ood Double Taxation Treaty and being certain they are Tax Resident, in their new Country

No comments:

Post a Comment


The information contained on this site is for general guidance only. You should neither act, nor refrain from action, on the basis of any such information. You should take appropriate professional advice on your particular circumstances because the application of laws and regulations will vary depending on particular circumstances and because tax and benefit laws and regulations undergo frequent change.

Whilst I will do the best i can to ensure that the information on this site is correct at the date of first posting, I shall not be liable for any loss or damages (including, without limitation, damages for loss of income or business or increased liabilities) arising in contract, tort or otherwise from the use of or inability to use this site, or any information contained in it, or from any action or decision taken as a result of using this site or any such information. Third parties are responsible for ensuring that material submitted for inclusion on this site complies with appropriate law. I will not be responsible for any error, omission or inaccuracy in the material submitted by third parties.

I accept no responsibility for the availability or content on any site to which a hypertext link from this site exists. The links are provided on an "as is" basis and I make no warranty, express or implied, for the information provided within them.

You are permitted to access, print and download extracts from this site on the basis that the use of all material on this site is for information and non commercial or personal use only; any copies of these pages saved to disk or to any other storage medium may only be used for subsequent viewing purposes or to print extracts for personal use.

By accessing any part of this site, you shall be deemed to have accepted these terms in full.

These terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English Law and the courts of England shall have exclusive jurisdiction.

I will not respond to individual queries posted as comments on this blog. If you need advice on a specific situation, email the full details to me at